studi e ricerche scientifiche

Cognitive Training with Neurofeedback Using NIRS Improved Cognitive Functions in Young Adults: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

(1) Background: A previous study has shown that cognitive training with neurofeedback (CT-NF) using down-regulation improves cognitive functions in young adults. Neurofeedback has two strategies for manipulating brain activity (down-regulation and upregulation). However, the benefit of CT-NF with the upregulation of cognitive functions is still unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the upregulation of CT-NF improves a wide range of cognitive functions compared to cognitive training alone. (2) Methods: In this double-blinded randomized control trial (RCT), 60 young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: CT-NF group, CT alone group, and an active control (ACT) group who

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Fundamental relationships of executive functions and physiological abilities with game intelligence, game time and injuries in elite soccer players

The study examined the (1) interrelation of cognitive-athletic performance concerning game time and (2) injuries; (3) relation between executive functions and game intelligence. A total of 172 elite soccer players (age: 12–34 years) performed tests assessing multiple-object-tracking, working memory capacity (WMC), cognitive flexibility (CF), and inhibition. General and specific-endurance-performance, and physical performance (jumps and sprint) were also measured. Game intelligence, time and injuries were tracked. WMC, CF, and a total cognition score showed correlations with game intelligence, and the same parameter, along with selective attention and game intelligence were also correlated with game time. Sprint and specific-endurance were connected with game

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Executive functions in elite athletes – Comparing open-skill and closed-skill sports and considering the role of athletes’ past involvement in both sport categories

Previous research documented differences in executive functions between elite athletes in different sports. It was argued that athletes in sport disciplines with higher cognitive demands (i.e., open-skill) show better executive functions than athletes in less cognitively challenging sport disciplines (i.e., closed-skill). In the current study, we aimed at detecting differences in executive functions between elite athletes in open-skill versus closed-skill sports and questioned the role of their total involvement in these sports until the age of 18 on executive functions. Seventy-five elite athletes (45 males and 30 females; Mage = 23.03 ± 4.41 years) from various sports were classified as open- or closed-skill athletes based

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Neuro-Empowerment of Executive Functions in the Workplace: The Reason Why

The successful achievement of pre-established working goals and the ability to respond appropriately to workplace demands depends both on efficient and flexible cognitive and social functioning. Previous research has proposed that executive functions (EFs) play an essential role in work performance, with successful professionals displaying better social, cognitive, and executive functioning (Bailey, 2007; Willoughby and Blair, 2016). Therefore, the demand of assessment procedures and empowerment protocols dedicated to the EFs is growing rapidly. EFs are considered a family of top-down mental processes including inhibition (self-control and interference control), working memory, and cognitive flexibility (Miyake et al., 2000; Diamond, 2013). They are high-level cognitive functions

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Effectiveness of Cognitive Training for School-Aged Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review

Problems with executive functions (EF) are hallmark characteristics of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Therefore, this review analyzed the efficacy of cognitive training for EF in reducing ADHD symptomatology and improving educational, interpersonal, and occupational outcomes in children and adolescents with this disorder. A systematic search, using a PICO (population/participant, intervention/indicator, comparator/control, outcome) framework was carried out. From 2008 to 2018, resorting to EBSCOhost, the following databases were searched: Academic Search Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Twenty-two studies were included in this review. Of the 18 studies that reported performance-based measures of

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The Potential Role for Cognitive Training in Sport: More Research Needed

Sports performance at the highest level requires a wealth of cognitive functions such as attention, decision making, and working memory to be functioning at optimal levels in stressful and demanding environments. Whilst a substantial research base exists focusing on psychological skills for performance (e.g., imagery) or therapeutic techniques for emotion regulation (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy), there is a scarcity of research examining whether the enhancement of core cognitive abilities leads to improved performance in sport. Cognitive training is a highly researched method of enhancing cognitive skills through repetitive and targeted exercises. In this article, we outline the potential use of

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Core executive functions are associated with success in young elite soccer players

Physical capacity and coordination cannot alone predict success in team sports such as soccer. Instead, more focus has been directed towards the importance of cognitive abilities, and it has been suggested that executive functions (EF) are fundamentally important for success in soccer. However, executive functions are going through a steep development from adolescence to adulthood. Moreover, more complex EF involving manipulation of information (higher level EF) develop later than simple executive functions such as those linked to simple working memory capacity (Core EF). The link between EF and success in young soccer players is therefore not obvious. In the present

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Miglioramento del funzionamento cognitivo negli adulti anziani sani: una revisione sistematica della rilevanza clinica dell’allenamento cognitivo basato sui computer

Successfully assisting older adults to maintain or improve cognitive function, particularly when they are dealing with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), remains a major challenge. Cognitive training may stimulate neuroplasticity thereby increasing cognitive and brain reserve. Commercial brain training programs are computerized, readily-available, easy-to-administer and adaptive but often lack supportive data and their clinical validation literature has not been previously reviewed. Therefore, in this review, we report the characteristics of commercially available brain training programs, critically assess the number and quality of studies evaluating the empirical evidence of these programs for promoting brain health in healthy older adults,

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Do Elite and Amateur Soccer Players Outperform Non-Athletes on Neurocognitive Functioning? A Study Among 8-12 Year Old Children

Aim Research suggested a positive association between physical fitness and neurocognitive functioning in children. Aim of the present study is to investigate possible dose-response relationships between diverse daily physical activities and a broad range of neurocognitive functions in preadolescent children. Furthermore, the relationship between several sedentary behaviours, including TV-watching, gaming and computer time, and neurocognitive functioning will be investigated in this group of children. Methods A total of 168 preadolescent boys, aged 8 to 12 years, were recruited from various locations, including primary schools, an amateur soccer club, and a professional soccer club, to increase variability in the amount of

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3D-Multiple Object Tracking training task improves passing decision-making accuracy in soccer players

Objectives The ability to perform a context-free 3-dimensional multiple object tracking (3D-MOT) task has been highly related to athletic performance. In the present study, we assessed the transferability of a perceptual-cognitive 3D-MOT training from a laboratory setting to a soccer field, a sport in which the capacity to correctly read the dynamic visual scene is a prerequisite to performance. Design Throughout pre- and post-training sessions, we looked at three essential skills (passing, dribbling, shooting) that are used to gain the upper hand over the opponent. Method We recorded decision-making accuracy during small-sided games in university-level soccer players (n = 23) before and

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