Sport

L’allenamento cognitivo permette una corretta rappresentazione spazio/temporale attraverso la sintesi dei dati sensoriali ricevuti e incentiva la nascita di strategie condivise da contrapporre a quelle elaborate dagli avversari.

L’atleta intelligente analizza e interpreta continuamente le informazioni che riceve dall’ambiente per sfruttarle a suo vantaggio.

Gli sport ad open-skills si caratterizzano per la presenza di un ambiente altamente mutevole ed imprevedibile, nel quale il contesto di azione cambia in pochissimi secondi e dove ogni situazione è differente dalla precedente. Un giocatore di questi sport si trova continuamente costretto ad adattarsi al variare della situazione e a mettere in campo movimenti, giocate e pensieri sempre differenti tra loro.

È molto importante che i giocatori degli sport ad open-skills possiedano abilità fisico-atletiche ben sviluppate ed automatizzate in modo che possano variare efficacemente la loro esecuzione al variare della situazione di gioco. È poi fondamentale che il giocatore abbia acquisito una solida base tecnico-tattica e che la sappia applicare in modo flessibile, per adattare le risposte più adeguate e il comportamento di gioco più funzionale in relazione alle diverse situazioni che incontra in partita.

Tutto ciò non basta, perché un giocatore di successo deve potenziare anche determinate abilità cognitive che gli consentano di adattarsi al variare della situazione (funzioni eseutive) Miyake et al. (2000):

memoria di lavoro

Permette di conservare il ricordo di tutte quelle nuove informazioni utili allo svolgimento di un’attività. Consente ai giocatori di tenere a mente le variabili della partita, leggendo così le situazioni, e di mettere in atto dei comportamenti. Aiuta ad analizzare contemporaneamente la posizione di compagni, avversari, palla e spazio vuoto, così da potersi muoversi efficacemente.

flessibilità di risposta cognitiva

Capacità di modificare la propria azione in base ai cambiamenti dell’ambiente, dovuti anche al compito che si sta eseguendo. Pensiamo ad esempio a una rapida transizione di gioco o alle variabili tattiche che deve considerare in tempi molto ristretti un giocatore in possesso palla.

Inibizione o controllo inibitorio

Capacità di eliminare, nell’esecuzione di un compito, tutte le variabili che possono avere il ruolo di distrattori nel raggiungimento dello scopo. Aiuta i giocatori a concentrarsi verso l’azione in corso. Permette di abbandonare rapidamente schemi mentali non più utili per adottarne dei nuovi.

Miyake, A., Friedman, N.P., Emerson, M.J., Witzki, A.H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T.D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cogn. Psychol. 41, 49–100.

calcio

paddle

tennis

basket

studi e ricerche scientifiche

Fundamental relationships of executive functions and physiological abilities with game intelligence, game time and injuries in elite soccer players

The study examined the (1) interrelation of cognitive-athletic performance concerning game time and (2) injuries; (3) relation between executive functions and game intelligence. A total of 172 elite soccer players (age: 12–34 years) performed tests assessing multiple-object-tracking, working memory capacity (WMC), cognitive flexibility (CF), and inhibition. General and specific-endurance-performance, and physical performance (jumps and sprint) were also measured. Game intelligence, time and injuries were tracked. WMC, CF, and a total cognition score showed correlations with game intelligence, and the same parameter, along with selective attention and game intelligence were also correlated with game time. Sprint and specific-endurance were connected with game

Leggi Tutto »

Executive functions in elite athletes – Comparing open-skill and closed-skill sports and considering the role of athletes’ past involvement in both sport categories

Previous research documented differences in executive functions between elite athletes in different sports. It was argued that athletes in sport disciplines with higher cognitive demands (i.e., open-skill) show better executive functions than athletes in less cognitively challenging sport disciplines (i.e., closed-skill). In the current study, we aimed at detecting differences in executive functions between elite athletes in open-skill versus closed-skill sports and questioned the role of their total involvement in these sports until the age of 18 on executive functions. Seventy-five elite athletes (45 males and 30 females; Mage = 23.03 ± 4.41 years) from various sports were classified as open- or closed-skill athletes based

Leggi Tutto »

The Potential Role for Cognitive Training in Sport: More Research Needed

Sports performance at the highest level requires a wealth of cognitive functions such as attention, decision making, and working memory to be functioning at optimal levels in stressful and demanding environments. Whilst a substantial research base exists focusing on psychological skills for performance (e.g., imagery) or therapeutic techniques for emotion regulation (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy), there is a scarcity of research examining whether the enhancement of core cognitive abilities leads to improved performance in sport. Cognitive training is a highly researched method of enhancing cognitive skills through repetitive and targeted exercises. In this article, we outline the potential use of

Leggi Tutto »

Core executive functions are associated with success in young elite soccer players

Physical capacity and coordination cannot alone predict success in team sports such as soccer. Instead, more focus has been directed towards the importance of cognitive abilities, and it has been suggested that executive functions (EF) are fundamentally important for success in soccer. However, executive functions are going through a steep development from adolescence to adulthood. Moreover, more complex EF involving manipulation of information (higher level EF) develop later than simple executive functions such as those linked to simple working memory capacity (Core EF). The link between EF and success in young soccer players is therefore not obvious. In the present

Leggi Tutto »

Do Elite and Amateur Soccer Players Outperform Non-Athletes on Neurocognitive Functioning? A Study Among 8-12 Year Old Children

Aim Research suggested a positive association between physical fitness and neurocognitive functioning in children. Aim of the present study is to investigate possible dose-response relationships between diverse daily physical activities and a broad range of neurocognitive functions in preadolescent children. Furthermore, the relationship between several sedentary behaviours, including TV-watching, gaming and computer time, and neurocognitive functioning will be investigated in this group of children. Methods A total of 168 preadolescent boys, aged 8 to 12 years, were recruited from various locations, including primary schools, an amateur soccer club, and a professional soccer club, to increase variability in the amount of

Leggi Tutto »

3D-Multiple Object Tracking training task improves passing decision-making accuracy in soccer players

Objectives The ability to perform a context-free 3-dimensional multiple object tracking (3D-MOT) task has been highly related to athletic performance. In the present study, we assessed the transferability of a perceptual-cognitive 3D-MOT training from a laboratory setting to a soccer field, a sport in which the capacity to correctly read the dynamic visual scene is a prerequisite to performance. Design Throughout pre- and post-training sessions, we looked at three essential skills (passing, dribbling, shooting) that are used to gain the upper hand over the opponent. Method We recorded decision-making accuracy during small-sided games in university-level soccer players (n = 23) before and

Leggi Tutto »

Funzioni Attentive Esecutive, gioco del calcio e apprendimenti

Quali e quante siano esattamente le Funzioni Attentive Esecutive (FAE)1 non è possibile sostenerlo nemmeno facendo riferimento alla letteratura. Ci soffermeremo quindi sulle fondamentali, come rilevato da Miyake et al. (2000), e su quanto rinvenuto a conferma o a completamento dalla neurofisiologia lesionale. In generale, per Funzioni Attentive Esecutive intendiamo quell’insieme di processi che elaborano, coordinano e integrano le informazioni ambientali e personali al fine di produrre un comportamento adeguato alla situazione contingente e allo scopo che ci si prefigge (Welsh, 2002). Vanno pertanto inseriti in questo quadro i processi che fanno riferimento all’attenzione, come suggerito da Baddeley (2002).

Leggi Tutto »

Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development

Leggi Tutto »

Executive Functions Predict the Success of Top-Soccer Players

While the importance of physical abilities and motor coordination is non-contested in sport, more focus has recently been turned toward cognitive processes important for different sports. However, this line of studies has often investigated sport-specific cognitive traits, while few studies have focused on general cognitive traits. We explored if measures of general executive functions can predict the success of a soccer player. The present study used standardized neuropsychological assessment tools assessing players’ general executive functions including on-line multi-processing such as creativity, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. In a first cross-sectional part of the study we compared the results between High

Leggi Tutto »